An International Depository Receipt (IDR) is a financial instrument issued by a bank or financial institution outside of the country where the underlying shares are traded. IDRs represent ownership of shares in a foreign company and are traded on international stock exchanges, typically denominated in a currency other than the issuer’s domestic currency.

Key points about International Depository Receipts (IDRs) include:

1. **Purpose**: IDRs provide investors with the opportunity to invest in shares of foreign companies without having to directly purchase shares in the company’s home market. They offer a convenient way for investors to gain exposure to international markets and diversify their investment portfolios.

2. **Issuance**: IDRs are typically issued by a bank or financial institution, known as the depository bank, through a process called depositary receipt issuance. The depository bank purchases a block of shares in the foreign company and issues corresponding IDRs to investors in other countries. Each IDR represents a specific number of underlying shares in the foreign company.

3. **Listing and Trading**: IDRs are listed and traded on international stock exchanges, such as the London Stock Exchange (LSE), Luxembourg Stock Exchange, or New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). They are traded in the same manner as domestic stocks, with investors buying and selling IDRs through their brokerage accounts.

4. **Types of IDRs**:
– **Global Depository Receipts (GDRs)**: GDRs are issued and traded globally, typically denominated in US dollars and traded on international exchanges.
– **European Depository Receipts (EDRs)**: EDRs are issued and traded within Europe, typically denominated in euros and listed on European stock exchanges.
– **American Depository Receipts (ADRs)**: ADRs are issued and traded in the United States, typically denominated in US dollars and listed on US stock exchanges.

5. **Benefits for Issuers**: IDRs provide foreign companies with access to international capital markets and a broader investor base. By issuing IDRs, companies can raise capital, enhance their global visibility, and attract investment from institutional and retail investors around the world.

6. **Benefits for Investors**: IDRs offer investors several advantages, including:
– Diversification: IDRs enable investors to diversify their portfolios by gaining exposure to foreign markets and industries.
– Convenience: IDRs provide a convenient way for investors to invest in foreign companies without the need for opening overseas brokerage accounts or dealing with foreign exchange issues.
– Liquidity: IDRs are traded on established stock exchanges, offering liquidity and transparency to investors.

7. **Regulation**: The issuance and trading of IDRs are subject to regulatory oversight in the jurisdictions where they are listed and traded. Regulatory authorities ensure compliance with securities laws, disclosure requirements, and investor protection measures.

Overall, International Depository Receipts (IDRs) play a significant role in facilitating cross-border investment and capital flows, providing investors with access to global markets and companies with opportunities to raise capital and expand their investor base internationally.