Heterodox economics refers to approaches and perspectives in the field of economics that deviate from the mainstream or neoclassical economics. While neoclassical economics is the dominant paradigm in the discipline, heterodox economics encompasses a diverse range of theories and schools of thought that challenge or supplement mainstream economic ideas. Some key features and schools within heterodox economics include:

1. **Pluralism:** Heterodox economists advocate for a pluralistic approach, emphasizing the importance of considering multiple perspectives and theories to better understand economic phenomena. This stands in contrast to the more monolithic nature of neoclassical economics.

2. **Institutional Economics:** This school of thought focuses on the role of institutions, including legal, social, and political structures, in shaping economic outcomes. Institutional economists argue that economic behavior cannot be understood solely through the lens of individual choices and market forces.

3. **Post-Keynesian Economics:** Building on the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, post-Keynesian economists challenge neoclassical assumptions, particularly regarding the role of government in managing the economy and the importance of uncertainty. They emphasize the role of aggregate demand, effective demand, and the inherent instability of financial markets.

4. **Marxian Economics:** Rooted in the work of Karl Marx, Marxian economics analyzes the role of class struggle, capital accumulation, and the dynamics of capitalism. It explores issues such as exploitation, surplus value, and the tendency of capitalism toward crises.

5. **Feminist Economics:** This approach considers the ways in which gender influences economic outcomes and structures. Feminist economists examine issues such as gender wage gaps, household dynamics, and the impact of economic policies on women.

6. **Evolutionary Economics:** Drawing inspiration from biology, evolutionary economists focus on the evolution and adaptation of economic systems over time. They explore how institutions, technologies, and economic structures evolve in response to changing circumstances.

7. **Austrian Economics:** While sometimes considered heterodox, Austrian economics has also influenced mainstream thought. It emphasizes methodological individualism, subjective value theory, and the importance of market processes in allocating resources efficiently.

8. **Ecological Economics:** This interdisciplinary field integrates ecological principles into economic analysis. It addresses issues such as sustainability, resource depletion, and the impact of economic activities on the environment.

Heterodox economists often argue for a more inclusive and interdisciplinary approach, challenging the assumptions and methodologies of neoclassical economics to provide a richer understanding of economic phenomena.