Gross margin is a financial metric that represents the percentage of revenue that exceeds the cost of goods sold (COGS). It is a key indicator of a company’s profitability and efficiency in managing its production costs. Gross margin is expressed as a percentage and is calculated using the following formula:

\[ \text{Gross Margin (\%)} = \left( \frac{\text{Revenue} – \text{Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)}}{\text{Revenue}} \right) \times 100 \]

Key points about gross margin include:

1. **Revenue:** Gross margin is calculated using a company’s total revenue or sales. It represents the amount of money the company earns from its primary business activities.

2. **Cost of Goods Sold (COGS):** COGS includes all the direct costs associated with producing or purchasing the goods or services that a company sells. This may include raw materials, labor, manufacturing overhead, and other production-related expenses.

3. **Profitability Indicator:** The gross margin reflects the profitability of a company’s core business operations, excluding indirect expenses such as operating expenses, interest, and taxes.

4. **Percentage Format:** Gross margin is expressed as a percentage, making it easier to compare the profitability of different companies or analyze changes in profitability over time.

5. **Benchmarking:** Comparing the gross margins of companies within the same industry can provide insights into relative efficiency in managing production costs. Different industries may have varying average gross margin ranges.

6. **High vs. Low Gross Margin:** A higher gross margin is generally considered more favorable, as it indicates that a larger percentage of revenue is available to cover operating expenses and contribute to net profit. Conversely, a lower gross margin may suggest a higher production cost relative to revenue.

7. **Impact on Profitability:** Changes in gross margin directly impact a company’s overall profitability. Companies may seek to improve gross margin through cost-saving measures, negotiating better supplier deals, or adjusting pricing strategies.

8. **Industry Variations:** Gross margins vary across industries. For example, industries with higher production costs, such as manufacturing, may have lower gross margins compared to service-oriented industries with lower production costs.

It’s important to note that while gross margin provides valuable insights into the profitability of a company’s core operations, it does not account for operating expenses, interest, taxes, or non-operating income and expenses. Therefore, it should be considered in conjunction with other financial metrics for a comprehensive analysis of a company’s overall financial health.