Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, and political theorist who is best known for his collaborative work with Karl Marx. Together, Marx and Engels co-authored some of the most influential and foundational texts in the development of socialist and communist thought. Engels played a crucial role in shaping Marxist theory and co-authored “The Communist Manifesto” with Marx in 1848.

Here are key aspects of Friedrich Engels’s life and contributions:

1. **Early Life and Education:**
– Friedrich Engels was born on November 28, 1820, in Barmen (now part of Wuppertal), in the Rhine Province of the Kingdom of Prussia (present-day Germany). He came from a prosperous industrialist family.

2. **Business Career:**
– Engels began his career working in his family’s textile business. This experience exposed him to the harsh working conditions and exploitation faced by the industrial working class.

3. **Connection with Karl Marx:**
– Engels became politically active and developed a keen interest in radical ideas. In 1842, he moved to Manchester, England, where he worked at his father’s factory. It was in Manchester that he met Karl Marx, and the two formed a lifelong intellectual and political partnership.

4. **Collaboration with Marx:**
– Engels collaborated closely with Marx, contributing significantly to the development and refinement of Marxist theory. They co-authored several works, including “The Holy Family” (1845), “The German Ideology” (written 1845–1846, published later), and the influential “Communist Manifesto” (1848).

5. **”The Condition of the Working Class in England”:**
– Engels wrote “The Condition of the Working Class in England” (1845) based on his observations of the working class in Manchester. The book highlighted the social and economic inequalities of industrial capitalism.

6. **Contributions to Marxist Theory:**
– Engels made substantial contributions to Marxist theory, particularly in areas such as political economy, historical materialism, and the role of the state. His work “Anti-Dühring” (1878) addressed various philosophical and economic issues.

7. **Collaboration on “Das Kapital”:**
– After Marx’s death in 1883, Engels devoted himself to editing and completing Marx’s unfinished manuscripts, including the second and third volumes of “Das Kapital.”

8. **Later Years and Death:**
– Friedrich Engels continued his political and theoretical work until his death. He passed away on August 5, 1895, in London.

9. **Legacy:**
– Engels left a lasting impact on socialist and communist thought. His collaboration with Marx laid the groundwork for the development of Marxist theory and its application to social and economic analysis. Engels’s works, along with those of Marx, have influenced political movements, revolutions, and academic scholarship worldwide.

Engels’s writings, particularly in collaboration with Marx, have been foundational texts for socialist and communist movements and have inspired critical analysis of capitalism and class struggles. Despite criticisms and debates surrounding the interpretation and application of Marxist ideas, Engels’s contributions to the development of social and political thought remain significant.