The cost of equity refers to the return required by a company’s shareholders or investors for their investment in the company. It represents the compensation investors expect to receive for taking on the risk of investing in a particular stock. Unlike debt, equity does not have a fixed cost (such as interest on a loan); instead, the cost of equity is the return investors demand to hold the company’s shares.

There are different methods to estimate the cost of equity, but two common approaches are the Dividend Discount Model (DDM) and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM):

1. **Dividend Discount Model (DDM):** This model is based on the idea that the value of a stock is the present value of its future dividends. The cost of equity using the DDM is calculated as the dividend per share divided by the current stock price, plus the expected growth rate of dividends.

\[ \text{Cost of Equity (DDM)} = \left( \frac{\text{Dividends per Share}}{\text{Current Stock Price}} \right) + \text{Dividend Growth Rate} \]

2. **Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM):** The CAPM is a widely used method for estimating the cost of equity. It takes into account the risk-free rate, the market risk premium, and the stock’s beta, which measures its volatility compared to the overall market. The formula for the cost of equity using CAPM is as follows:

\[ \text{Cost of Equity (CAPM)} = \text{Risk-Free Rate} + (\text{Beta} \times \text{Market Risk Premium}) \]

– Risk-Free Rate: The rate of return on a risk-free investment (such as a government bond).

– Beta: A measure of a stock’s volatility in relation to the overall market.

– Market Risk Premium: The excess return investors expect from the overall market compared to a risk-free investment.

It’s important to note that the cost of equity is subjective and can vary based on the method used and the assumptions made. Companies may use different models or a combination of methods to arrive at an estimate that reflects their specific circumstances. Additionally, the cost of equity is a key input in various financial analyses, including the calculation of a company’s weighted average cost of capital (WACC), which is used in capital budgeting decisions.